PopDigests Policy Briefs Discussion Papers Policy Insights Books and Reports Yearbook Related Content Books and Reports - Labour migration in Flanders and the use of the single permit to address labour market shortages: The lived experiences of single permit holders working in medium skilled bottleneck professions Books and Reports - Climate Change, Displacement, Mobility and Migration: The State of Evidence, Future Scenarios, Policy Options Books and Reports - Could we have seen it coming? Towards an early warning system for asylum applications in the EU Event - Empirical prediction intervals applied to short term mortality forecasts and excess Event - ODISSEI Conference for Social Science in the Netherlands 2022 Books and Reports - What has been the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on immigrants? An update on recent evidence Policy Brief 10 Years After the Directive 2011/36/EU Lights and shadows in addressing the vulnerability of trafficked and exploited migrants The EU’s anti-trafficking Directive adopted a holistic, human rights sensitive approach but it has not been sufficiently implemented in all member states’ legislation. This Policy Brief reviews the challenges and gaps in its implementation, such as the lack of adequate assistance and protection for victims of trafficking and missing identification systems. Document Download Population & Policy Compact 33/2022 (2.11 MB) Image Key Messages Several EU countries do not apply the ‘reflection period’ and/or do not have a formal National Referral Mechanism (NRM) in place to identify and assist victims and support their full social inclusion. Assistance is nearly always dependent on victims’ cooperation with the authorities, in contrast with the principle of unconditional assistance. The non-punishment principle is not implemented or not implemented correctly. Also, trafficked persons are not addressed adequately regarding their vulnerabilities and their gender-related needs. Anti-trafficking institutions and organisations do not receive sufficient resources, and, in many countries, political and legal anti-trafficking measures tend to focus mainly on criminalisation and to conflate with restrictive migration policies, increasing persons’ vulnerability to exploitation. Many EU member states lack National Rapporteurs or fully independent equivalent mechanisms. Additional Information Authors of Original Article Marchetti Palumbo Source Marchetti, S., and Palumbo, L. (2022). 10 Years After the Directive 2011/36/EU: Lights and shadows in addressing the vulnerability of trafficked and exploited migrants. Population & Policy Compact 33, Berlin: Max Planck Society/Population Europe.