The AISP Population Report 2021 aims to analyze demographic trends of the Italian population over the last twenty years, situating the Italian dynamics within the larger European context. The main demographic dimensions that are investigated in the present volumes are: family, fertility, transition to adulthood, migration, health and mortality (including recent trends linked to the current COVID-19 pandemic). Moreover, the Report investigates dynamics of inequality in education and across geogrwaphical areas. The other relevant goal of the volume is to identify potential demographic scenarios for the future of the Italian population, highlighting their main challenges. Next to this, a rigorous analysis of possible policy options has been conducted, referring to international “best practices”, and developing causal evidence for the evaluations of these policies. ii The AISP Population Report 2023 aims to analyze how Italian families have been changing in the last two decades. The traditional nuclear family is only one type in an archipelago of families undergoing great change. In recent years there has been an increase in people living alone, cohabitations and children of unmarried parents, many more couples than in the past now decide not to live together, unions are formed and dissolved at any age, and same sex-couples and families are finally recognized by law. These changes have never been investigated in a scientific and rigorous way. How many and what kind of families are there in Italy? How are they distributed across the country? What are the obstacles and challenges they face? Using the most up-to-date data available, the volume offers a novel and surprising portrait of the diverse world of family forms, suggesting the urgency of changes in legislation and public policy.