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PopDigests are short, comprehensive summaries of research results with a link to the original publication (if accessible online). This allows population experts and other interested audiences to be able to easily access information to the latest research results. 

What are the big questions for the future?
Settersten Jr., Bernardi, Härkönen & colleagues explain how a life course perspective can make an important contribution to understanding the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals, families and populations. [...]
Properties of infertility perceptions over time
To better understand and to shine more light on infertility, Jasmin Passet-Wittig and Martin Bujard (German Federal Institute for Population Research), Julia McQuillan (University of Nebraska-Lincoln) and Arthur L. Greil (Alfred University) looked specifically at individuals’ perceptions about their ability to reproduce in Germany. [...]
Influence of grandparents’ willingness to care for grandchildren on adult children’s decision to have their first child
Using SHARE data, Roberta Rutigliano of the University of Groningen finds that the expectation of receiving occasional grandparental childcare has a positive influence on first birth transition for all included countries, while the expectation of receiving regular grandparental childcare has a positive influence only for pro-traditional and pro-natalist countries. [...]
This unique long-term analysis carried out by the Centre for Demographic Studies at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (CED-UAB) estimates the evolution of economic inequality for Barcelona and its hinterland over five centuries (1481-1905). It concludes that inequality was higher in pre-industrial times. [...]
Role of social class and neighbourhoods in educational achievement
Finn Hedefalk and Martin Dribe (Centre for Economic Demography and the Department of Economic History, Lund University) looked at the association between neighbourhood conditions throughout childhood and educational attainment in adulthood. Unlike existing research that has focused on present-day and segregated cities in the United States, Hedefalk and Dribe take a long-term perspective and examine the impact of one’s neighbourhood in a more homogenous city in Sweden. [...]
Fertility patterns of migrants from low-fertility countries in Norway
Marianne Tønnessen & Eleonora Mussino of the Stockholm University Demography Unit investigated fertility trends among immigrant women from low-fertility countries in their destination country of Norway, a moderate-fertility country. [...]
Forerunners of new cohabitation patterns
Juho Härkönen, M.D. (Anne) Brons & Jaap Dronkers found that children of divorce are among the forerunners of cohabitation as a replacement for marriage, choosing cohabitation over marriage at a faster rate than children of intact families. As cohabitation becomes more common, children from intact families "catch up" to children of divorce in their cohabitation patterns.  [...]
Differences among regions in living arrangements over the life course
How do countries differ in decisions to live alone over the life course? Researchers at the Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics & Universidad Complutense looked at global patterns and trends of those living alone based on sex and age. They found cross-national differences by gender and country-specific trends, and concluded that living alone is related to levels of individualism. [...]
Exploring the accuracy of the motherhood earnings penalty in the 21st century
Muller, Hiekel & Liefbroer investigate whether the "motherhood (earnings) penalty" holds true in the 21st century. Their results show that family trajectories do indeed have long-lasting consequences for women's personal earnings and employment, with women who follow traditional family trajectories facing the highest penalties. [...]
Intergenerational transfers over the lifetime for men and women in Europe
Binder-Hammer and colleagues analysed gender differences in intergenerational transfers to children and the elderly across 15 European countries. They found significant gender differences across countries related to time allocated to paid and unpaid work as well as how much men and women benefit from the pension system. These gender differences varied between countries. [...]