Perelli-Harris et al. investigated whether individuals who cohabit have similar levels of subjective wellbeing (SWB) as married people. They studied events and characteristics correlated with entrance into marriage; whether marriage may be more advantageous for those with a lower or higher tendency to marry; and, finally, whether there is variation by country and gender between partnership type and SWB.
Gender pay gaps persist in high-income countries and beyond. Having children, in particular, seems to be one of the main factors dividing the careers of women and men. Mothers who return to work after giving birth often face substantial wage losses, whereas fathers have been found to enjoy modest wage gains after the birth of a child. However, most studies have overlooked whether such wage premiums have changed over time amid transformations in the policy context surrounding fatherhood.
Research looking at Western European countries tends to suggest that the negative effect of parenthood on individuals’ subjective well-being is one of the key factors explaining low fertility trends. In a new study, Márta K. Radó tested this association for Hungary, which is an especially case for two main reasons. First, low fertility is a long-term trend in the country. Second, this persistently low fertility rate is paired with one of the longest and most extensively used periods of parental leave in Europe.
To address the lack of research on how long young adults want to live, Bowen et al. conducted a survey of over 700 university students in Austria, Norway, Poland and Russia. They asked students how long they want to live (preferred life expectancy), how long they expect to live (subjective life expectancy) and how long they think an average person of the same age and sex will live (belief about average cohort life expectancy).
Since the onset of the recession in the late 2000s, youth "Not in Education, Employment or Training" (NEET) have received much public attention. A recent study by Joonas Pitkänen, Hanna Remes, Heta Moustgaard and Pekka Martikainen from the Population Research Unit at University of Helsinki investigates childhood determinants of NEET status after compulsory school in Finland.
In this study, Júlia Mikolai & Hill Kulu focus on the consequences of separation for individuals’ housing outcomes. Their findings suggest that regardless of cross-national differences in policies, welfare provisions and housing markets, individuals face a period of uncertainty regarding their housing outcomes following separation; they are less likely to be homeowners than those who are in a steady relationship.
Using administrative registers that covered the entire Norwegian population, Trude Lappegård and Tom Kornstad found that the higher the share of fathers using parental leave in the municipality (social norm), the more likely women were to have their first and second child. Looking at the decision to have a second child, the effect of father’s engagement is actually stronger compared to the decision of becoming parents for the first time.
Confirming previous assumptions and based on the migration population in Sweden, the paper finds that a majority of re‐emigration is in fact returning to the country of birth. However, onward migration is more common for some groups, such as among forced migrants and migrants from the horn of Africa and other sub‐Saharan countries.
A study by Damiano Uccheddu, Anne H. Gauthier, Nardi Steverink and Tom Emery used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to identify the impact of the transition into and out of providing care for a spouse on the health of carers.
A study by Rahnu et al. looked at longitudinal register data from Statistics Findland to see how the share of immigrants in one’s workplace and in one’s residential neighbourhood influences the chances of a native Finn choosing a foreign-born partner. They found positive relationships for both domains.
Karhula, Erola, Raab and Fasang used Finnish register data and found similarities in socio-economic trajectories between siblings, with similarities proving strongest among the most and least advantaged. They concluded that taking a life course perspective is key to examining issues of social mobility.
Triventi looked at national data on the whole population of students enrolled in the fifth and sixth grade in Italy in 2012 to investigate whether teachers grade students with a migration background (SMBs) less generously than native students with comparable academic skills. He found that SMBs who achieved similar standardised test scores nevertheless received lower average grades in both reading and mathematics.
Gergő Baranyi and colleagues used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to assess longitudinal associations of neighbourhood nuisances and access to services with depression among older European adults. They found that those exposed to neighbourhood nuisances had a 36 per cent increased chance of developing depression.
Research on 6,700 parents of one- and two-year-olds in 29 European countries, including the UK, found that parents using part-time formal childcare had better mental health than those who used informal childcare only.
This working paper is based on the outcomes of a workshop discussion with experts from different scientific fields who work at the intersection of research, politics, economics and society. The value of scientific work is no longer measured just by whether it meets research-based quality criteria, but by its social impact.
Fewer and fewer children are being born in Sweden, while the average age of first-time mothers is rising. The latest figures from Statistics Sweden show that fertility rates in Sweden have fallen every year since 2009, and that the average age at first birth is the highest over a very long time. But none of the explanations researchers referred to in the past seem to be sufficient this time. So how can this development be explained?
This report by the OECD provides a synthesis of the main challenges faced by countries as workers live longer, as well as policy recommendationsand a set of international best practices to foster employability, labour demand and incentives to work at an older age.
Societies rely to a varying extent on the unpaid labour of informal carers. If not adequately supported in their role, informal carers can face negative impacts on their health and well-being; intensive informal caregiving can also result in higher demand and costs for health care as a consequence of its negative impact on the physical and mental health of carers, reduced labour market participation and consequently higher risks of poverty and social exclusion.
This book presents a rigorous enquiry into life course processes that are thought to influence health, integrating the latest methodologies for the study of pathways that link socio-demographic circumstances to health with an emphasis on the mediating factors that lie on these pathways.
The Sociology of Development section of the American Sociological Association has published a policy brief written by members of the Population Europe network: Francesco C. Billari (Bocconi University), Osea Giuntella (University of Pittsburgh), and Luca Stella (Bocconi University and Institute of Labor Economics, IZA). This brief, "Broadband Internet, Fertility and Work from Home", uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to look at the possible impacts of access to high speed Internet on fertility choices in a low fertility setting.
Jamie Robins and Miguel Hernán at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health have written a book that provides a cohesive presentation of concepts of, and methods for, causal inference. The book is divided in 3 parts of increasing difficulty: causal inference without models, causal inference with models, and causal inference from complex longitudinal data.
A multidisciplinary group of prominent scholars investigates the historical relationship between sexually transmitted infections and infertility. Science did not unmask the causal microorganisms until the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Their effects on fertility in human history remain mysterious. This is the first volume to address the subject across more than two thousand years of human history.
Leading experts Warren C. Sanderson and Sergei Scherbov provide a new way to measure individual and population ageing. Instead of counting how many years we’ve lived, we should think about the number of years we have left, our “prospective age.”
In this policy brief on child well-being, the OECD observes that children's experiences of family life are increasingly diverse. The growing fluidity of family life challenges tax/benefit systems to be more responsive to changes in children's living arrangements.
Nominations for the European Demographer Award are due by 12 January 2020. Population Europe, in collaboration with the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft and the Berlin Demography Forum, will present this prize to two researchers at the forefront of population studies on demographic change in Europe.
This year’s release includes new 20% samples for all current Brazil data sets, additional samples for Cambodia, Fiji, and Nepal, new samples for Guatemala, Laos, Russia, and Togo, and Labor Force Survey samples for Spain and Italy. All of these new samples and all current data can be accessed on the IPUMS website.
Fertility rates in the United States dropped to their lowest level in recorded history, with women having an average of 1.7 births in their lifetime. That’s one of the key findings in the Population Reference Bureau's 2019 World Population Data Sheet.
For a chance to include questions in Round 11 (2022/23) of the European Social Survey (ESS), the call for proposals is now open until January next year. This open competition offers teams of researchers the chance to include around 30 questions on a single academic and/or policy concern within Europe.
The Kurt-Rothschild-Award 2019 is given to researchers and projects that direct their focus of analysis towards this immanent embeddedness of economic developments. This year’s awardees accept the additional challenges, complexities and difficulties that come with such an approach and put them at the centre of their work.
Headed by Wolfgang Lutz, this new department will be a strong university-based pillar of the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital which also includes IIASA’s World Population Program and the Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
Within the framework of the H2020 Project Generations and Gender Programme – Evaluate, Plan, Initiate (GGP-EPI), two policy dialogue events were held at the German House in London on the 4th of November 2019. The first was an Expert Meeting with 22 participants from academia, policy and civil society organisations. Following that event, a public panel discussion was held in the evening with Dr Katarina Barley, Prof. Michaela Kreyenfeld and Prof. Wendy Sigle.