How can municipalities respond to population changes and what steps can be taken to maintain the quality of life in regions shrinking in population size? What are the differences in the needs and demands of young generations, young families and older generations? These questions were the subject of a meeting held in Berlin on 20 January 2020 on behalf of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, in which experts from science, policy, local government and civil society in Germany discussed possible solutions.
Zsolt Spéder and Lívia Murinkó (Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, HDRI) and Livia Sz. Oláh (Stockholm University Demography Unit, SUDA) used data from the Hungarian Generations and Gender Survey to study whether two policies, a flat-rate cash support and a tax rebate, increased the likelihood of women in Hungary giving birth to a third child.
Because of the time lag between the act of smoking and dying from smoking, and because males generally take up smoking before females do, male and female smoking epidemiology often follows a typical double wave pattern dubbed the ‘smoking epidemic’. Research from Maarten Wensink (CPop) et al. aimed to answer the questions: How are male and female deaths from this epidemic differentially progressing in high-income regions on a cohort-by-age basis? How have they affected male-female survival differences?
Do family, friends or work colleagues influence each other’s fertility decisions? If so, to what extent does this generate a multiplying effect in societies? In a study published in Demography, Zafer Buyukkececi (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) and colleagues answered these questions with data from the system of social statistical data sets provided by Statistics Netherlands.
How do policy and norms interact and influence labour market participation? To what extent can policies shape the participation of women in the labour market - over and above local social and cultural norms? And are family-friendly policies sufficient to allow women to pursue a full-time career next to their family responsibilities regardless of cultural context? Hannah Zagel (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) and Zachary Van Winkle (University of Oxford) used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE) to look at women ages 15 to 50 living throughout the 20th century across Europe to answer these questions.
Christine Schnor (Université Catholique de Louvain) and Marika Jalovaara (University of Turku) examined the increase in non-marital childbearing over the period 1970–2009. Their descriptive analysis reveals that the overall increase in non-marital childbearing is mainly due to increases in non-marital childbearing rates among the medium-educated population, contradicting previous evidence on the key role played by lower educated individuals.
How do the mortality rates of those who migrate differ from those who remain in the origin country? Matthew Wallace and Ben Wilson (SUDA) use data on 35 migrant groups living in England and Wales and find that the lower the development level of the origin country, the greater the size of the advantage of migrants in the destination country.
Compared with the demographics for the Syrian-born population in Sweden in 2010, a larger share now have a higher education, are younger, and less geographically concentrated, according to demographers Siddartha Aradhya and Eleonora Mussino (SUDA).
Poor childhood socioeconomic conditions are associated with higher risk of frailty in old age, find Bernadette van der Linden (NCCR LIVES) et al. By using longitudinal and cross-national data, their study is the first longitudinal and cross-national European study to indicate that pathways to (pre-)frailty already begin during childhood and continue over the life course.
Anushiya Vanajan (NIDI and University of Groningen) and colleagues used data from the Netherlands to compare the associations between three flexible work arrangements and severe health-related work limitations among older workers. Working time flexibility was associated with fewer health-related work limitations, while work place flexibility and phased retirement were not.
Miriam Evensen (Norwegian Institute of Public Health) and Torkild Lyngstad (University of Oslo) used population-based data from Norway and found that adolescent males with externalising disorders - such as anxiety and depression - have a lower chance of becoming a parent by age 30 than other men.
In Sweden, Sara Kalucza (Umeå University and University of Queensland) and colleagues found that teen parents go on to have many different types of families and partnerships in adulthood. For male teen parents, their parents' economic resources were more strongly associated with family formation trajectories, while for women, the family structure in which they grew up seemed to play a stronger role.
Thijs van den Broek (Erasmus University Rotterdam) and Marco Tosi (Collegio Carlo Alberto) analysed data from the Generations & Gender Programme (GGP) of older parents from eight eastern European countries. By using an instrumental variable approach, the authors show that for women, having multiple children had a causal protective effect against loneliness.
Petra de Jong (NIDI) used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the factors influencing people’s willingness to migrate and whether the receiving country's welfare system can influence individual migration decisions. She found no support for the "welfare magnet hypothesis" in the specific case of labour migrants, though her findings suggest that a generous welfare system in the country of origin can help encourage potential out-migrants to stay.
The Vienna Yearbook of Population Research features peer-reviewed research articles addressing population trends as well as a broad range of theoretical and methodological issues in population research. This Special Issue on Population Ageing and Intergenerational Redistribution sheds light on the ways in which the families and governments of Europe draw on the earnings of the working-age population to support both children and the elderly.
A comprehensive introduction to modern applied statistical genetic data analysis, accessible to those without a background in molecular biology or genetics, by Melinda C. Mills (University of Oxford & Nuffield College), Nicola Barban (University of Essx), and Felix C. Tropf (École Nationale de la Statistique et de L’administration Économique & Center for Research in Economics and Statistic).
This volume, edited by Richard Breen (Nuffield College, University of Oxford) and Walter Müller (Mannheim University), examines the role of education in shaping rates and patterns of intergenerational social mobility in the United States and Europe during the 20th century.
This book provides a demographic profile of the Syrian diaspora into Europe and identifies the issue of forced migration as a separate and increasingly salient topic within the more general field of migration research. It describes the progressive increase in numbers of Syrian refugees in different European countries during recent years and gives a demographic profile of the Syrian refugee population.
The demographic structure of the European Union (EU) and its development are of huge consequence for the EU and its citizens in a host of areas. This yearly European Parliament report highlights EU population trends and evolution, with an "in-focus" section looking at the relationship between food and nutrition and demographic changes.
This new policy brief from United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) discusses the need for countries in the region to address the potential disadvantages women may face due to population ageing. Gender- and age-responsive reforms must consider the multiple dimensions of gender inequality manifest in ageing societies.
Disease outbreaks affect women and men differently, and pandemics make existing inequalities for women and girls and discrimination of other marginalized groups such as persons with disabilities and those in extreme poverty, worse. This needs to be considered, given the different impacts surrounding detection and access to treatment for women and men.
The OECD has published several brief analyses on the impacts and consequences of the coronavirus outbreak, as well as possible solutions, in areas including containment, health, employment, education, and more. The site is continuously supplemented and updated.
This working paper by Tomáš Sobotka, Anna Matysiak and Zuzanna Brzozowska (Wittgenstein Centre for Population and Global Human Capital) aims to summarise the available evidence on the effects of family policies on fertility, combining literature review with empirical illustrations for selected countries and policy interventions. It also discusses the complexity of the policy-fertility links.
Between mid-March to mid-June 2020, we collected the articles below in response to the coronavirus pandemic. This is a comprehensive list of what our partner institutes and experts wrote on the topic during this time. We thank the Population Europe community for their contributions to this valuable collection of early research on demography and the COVID-19 crisis.
The Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB), together with the Leibniz Institute for Social Sciences GESIS and the University of Cologne, is creating a new research basis for a better understanding of changes in family and demographic development. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) with 12.5 million euros until 2024 and if the evaluation is positive the German Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community (BMI) will ensure that funding is continued.
How unequal are we in our length of life? How will this inequality change in the future? What are the limits to human longevity? And what does all that mean for our pension systems? James Vaupel (University of Southern Denmark, SDU) will tackle these issues and more in a new project ‘Inequalities in Lifespans before and after Retirement: Trailblazing Demographic Theory and Analysis’.
Since the pandemic began, many countries have provided daily counts of COVID-19-related deaths. To go further, in accordance with its missions to disseminate demographic knowledge, INED’s scientific community is working to provide free access to data organized by sex, age group, and place of COVID-19-related deaths. For now, these data concern Germany, France, Italy, and Spain, but other countries should be analysed in the coming weeks.
Population Europe welcomes the AAL Programme as its newest collaboration partner! They are a funding programme that aims to create better quality of life for older people and to strengthen industrial opportunities in the field of healthy ageing technology and innovation.
On Monday, 20 January, 2020, Population Europe hosted a panel debate in cooperation with the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) and the project "Demografiewerkstatt Kommunen".