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PopDigests are short, comprehensive summaries of research results with a link to the original publication (if accessible online). This allows population experts and other interested audiences to be able to easily access information to the latest research results. 

Ageing without children
In recent years, the number of ageing adults in societies has increased significantly. At the same time, even countries with generous social support systems have begun shifting care obligations away from the state, emphasizing the need for individual responsibility. The idea falls under the assumption that adult children will step in as the need for care arises. But what does this mean for individuals who, either voluntarily or involuntarily, do not have children in old age? In a recent article, Katya Ivanova and Pearl Dykstra identify and explore key issues that arise when considering the care needs of aging nonparents. [...]
Parental supervision and risky behaviour of teenagers in the U.S.
When tackling risky behaviour of adolescents, are mothers and fathers equally capable of influencing their child? While the literature has pointed to a mitigating effect of parental supervision on adolescent risky behaviour, studies thus far did not differentiate between fathers and mothers. [...]
New evidence from Switzerland
The role of income and employment on fertility patterns has already been extensively explored in the existing literature. However, empirical evidence for such effects is surprisingly scarce for Switzerland. In this recent study, Doris Hanappi, Valérie-Anne Ryser and Laura Bernardi examine the way perceived job quality is associated with the intention to have a child for men and women in Switzerland. The authors also explored whether job quality carries the same weight when considering first and subsequent child intentions, and whether the belief that children suffer by having a working mother changes the effects of job quality on the childbearing intentions of individuals. [...]
Immigrant generations and partnership dynamics in France
During the past 50 years, marital trends in Europe have changed significantly, particularly in France, where family formation has been postponed, the number of marriages has declined and cohabitation has increased. Simultaneously, for some time now, France has been a country of immigration, welcoming immigrants from a wide variety of countries and regions where partnership patterns are highly diverse. How are these two trends connected? In her study, Ariane Pailhé compares partnership dynamics between immigrants and the native French population. Using data from the Trajectories and Origins (TeO) survey, she explores whether the change in family patterns among the French population have taken place among first and second generation immigrants, as well as across immigrant groups. [...]
Norms of family obligations and actual support provided to parents: a cross-national approach
Country differences in intergenerational relationships are not only due to economic, policy or housing contexts but also to a cultural tendency towards closer intergenerational ties. In a recent study, Cornelia Mureşan and Paul-Teodor Hărăguş investigated how norms of filial responsibility influence adult children to provide support to their ageing parents in several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries as compared to Western Europe. They examined to what extent these norms are consistent with helping behaviour, whether the responsiveness to norms varies across countries, and whether CEE countries differ from societies benefiting from more generous public support to ageing people. [...]
Decisions on sharing parental leave among couples in Austria
A wide range of factors have been identified in influencing parents’ decisions on shared leave, including gender ideologies towards parenting and care work. Masculinity is one of the driving forces in changing gender relations within families, meaning how fathers are positioned and their practices inside a household or a relationship. In this context, little attention has been paid to the extent to which masculinity is jointly constructed by both fathers and mothers, and how these constructions are linked to the use of parental leave. [...]
The impact of one’s month of birth on the chances of being continuously promoted throughout primary education in France
How does a child’s birth month affect their chances of success in primary school? And to what extent is their success dependent on their socioeconomic background? In this study, Fabrizio Bernardi explores the chances of students to be successfully promoted after every grade in primary school in France. The analysis is based on the concept of compensatory advantage, which states that the lives of individuals from privileged socioeconomic backgrounds are less dependent on prior negative events. An early disadvantage is likely to persist or grow larger over time for people from disadvantaged families, whereas it is likely to attenuate for those from more advantaged families. This is because parental investments in upper-class families tend to compensate for an early disadvantage, whereas disadvantages are reinforced among the lower class. [...]
Marriage and divorce of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in Sweden
In how much do immigrants and their descendants in Sweden differ from native Swedes in their marriage formation, divorce and re-marriage? In their paper, Gunnar Andersson, Ognjen Obućina and Kirk Scott demonstrated that there is a big variation among immigrant groups and between migrants and Swedish-born individuals, and that the country of origin matters when explaining this heterogeneity. The authors were able to break down the immigrant population into a fairly large number of country categories, representing a wide variety of migrant backgrounds in terms of the societies and family systems they come from. [...]
Effects of paternity leave schemes offered by employers in Switzerland
What happens to views and ideas about gendered representations and practices of fatherhood if a company allows new fathers to take one month of paid leave in a country with no statutory paternity leave? Isabel Valarino and Jacques-Antoine Gauthier analysed the implementation and use of a one-month paid paternity leave in the urban French-speaking context in Switzerland. [...]
The social gradient of the influence of parental separation on children’s educational outcomes
It is widely recognised that children who experience parental separation during their childhood tend to achieve lower educational outcomes than those who come from intact families. However, the possible differentiation in the way in which such separation effects influence children from different socio-economic backgrounds is much less understood. In his work on Germany, Michael Grätz from the European University Institute looks at children’s social origin to disentangle such heterogeneity and shed further light on how the negative impact of parental separation on their educational outcomes varies. [...]